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Bacopa Monnieri
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Biotin (Vitamin B7)
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Coenzyme Q10 (Co Q10)
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Folic Acid (Vitamin B9)
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Ginkgo Biloba
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Gotu Kola
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Guarana Seed Extract
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Huperzine A
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19. Zhang GB, Wang MY, Zheng JQ, et al. Facilitation of cholinergic transmission by huperzine A in toad
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20. Laganiere S, Corey J, Tang XC, et al. Acute and chronic studies with the anticholinesterase Huperzine A:
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21. Tang XC, De Sarno P, Sugaya K, et al. Effect of huperzine A, a new cholinesterase inhibitor, on the central
    cholinergic system of the rat. J Neurosci Res. 1989;24:276–285.
22. Tang XC, Han YF, Chen XP, et al. Effects of huperzine A on learning and the retrieval process of discrimination
    performance in rats [in Chinese]. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1986;7:507–511.
23. Guan LC, Chen SS, Lu WH, et al. Effects of huperzine A on electroencephalography power spectrum in
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24. Lu WH, Shou J, Tang XC. Improving effect of huperzine A on discrimination performance in aged rats and
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25. Wang YE, Feng J, Lu WH. Pharmacokinetics of huperzine A in rats and mice [in Chinese]. Zhongguo Yao Li
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26. Wang YE, Yue DX, Tang XC. Anti-cholinesterase activity of huperzine A [in Chinese]. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue
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27. Zhu XD, Tang XC. Improvement of impaired memory in mice by huperzine A and huperzine B [in Chinese].
    Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao. 1988;9:492–497.
28. Zhu XD, Tang XC. Facilitatory effects of huperzine A and B on learning and memory of spatial discrimination in
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29. Yan XF, Lu WH, Lou WJ, et al. Effects of huperzine A and B on skeletal muscle and the electroencephalogram
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L-Theanine
1. Juneja, LR; Chu, DC; Okubo, T; Nagato, Y; Yokogoshi, H. (1999). "L-Theanine - a unique amino acid of green
    tea and its relaxation effect in humans". Trends in Food Science & Technology 10 (2): 199–204.
2. Gomez-Ramirez, M., Kelly, S.P., Montesi, J.L., and Foxe, J.J. The effects of L-theanine on alpha-band
    oscillatory brain activity during a visuo-spatial attention task. Brain Topography, 2009, 22: 44-51.
3. Yokogoshi H, Kobayashi M, Mochizuki M, Terashima T (1998). "Effect of theanine, r-glutamylethylamide, on
    brain monoamines and striatal dopamine release in conscious rats". Neurochem Res 23 (5): 667–73.
4. Kimura K, Ozeki M, Juneja L, Ohira H (2007). "L-Theanine reduces psychological and physiological stress
    responses". Biol Psychol 74 (1): 39–45.
5. Haskell CF, Kennedy DO, Milne AL, Wesnes KA, Scholey AB (2008). "The effects of l-theanine, caffeine and
    their combination on cognition and mood". Biol Psychol 77(2): 113–22.
6. http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/8965/title/Distracted%3F_Tea_might_help_your_focus" John J.
    Foxe of the Nathan S. Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research in Orangeburg, N.Y., and his colleagues recruited
    16 people for tests of attentiveness on four days. Before testing, each individual drank a glass of water. On 3
    days, the drink was spiked with 100 milligrams of theanine, 60 mg of caffeine, or both. The theanine dose was
    equivalent to that in 4 to 5 cups of tea, and the caffeine translated to about 2.5 cups of tea. In the difficult tests,
    participants watched a computer screen and pressed a button when a designated shape appeared
    on the side of a busy visual field to which an arrow had previously pointed. Participants' accuracy differed little
    between days when they got water alone or with only one additive. Accuracy improved dramatically, however,
    on the day that they got the theanine-caffeine combination. The attention benefit lasted throughout the 3 hours
    of testing."
7. Terashima T. et al. Effect of Suntheanine Intake on Learning Ability. Fourth Shizuoka Forum on Health and
    Longevity. Nov 18, 1999 p.82-83. No abstract.
8. Higashiyama A, et al. Effects of L-theanine on attention and reaction time response. Journal of Functional
    Foods. Volume 3, Issue 3, July 2011, Pages 171-178.
9. Roan, Shari. “L-Theanine Comes into Focus.” Los Angeles Times 4 May 2010.
    http://articles.latimes.com/2009/may/04/health/he-theanine4. Retrieved 2011-10-05.
10. Green tea lulls brain into quality sleep. NutraIngredients.com. 17 March 2004.
11. Juneja LR, et al. L-theanine a unique amino acid of green tea and its relaxation effect in humans. Trends Food
    Sci Tech 1999; 10:199-204.
12. Ito K, et al. Effects of L-theanine on the release of alpha brain waves in human volunteers. Nippon
    Nogeikagaku Kaishi 1998;72:153-7. No abstract.
13. Gomez-Ramirez M; Higgins, BA; Rycroft, JA; Owen, GN; Mahoney, J; Shpaner, M; Foxe, JJ (2007). "The
    Deployment of Intersensory Selective Attention: A High-density Electrical Mapping Study of the Effects of
    Theanine". Clin Neuropharmacol 30 (1): 25-38.
14. Kakuda T, Nozawa A, Sugimoto A, Niino H. Inhibition by theanine of binding of [3H] AMPA, [3H] kainate, and
    [3H]MDL 105,519 to glutamate receptors. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2002;66(12):2683-6.
15. Mason R. 200 mg of Zen; L-theanine boosts alpha waves, promotes alert relaxation. Alternative &
    Complementary Therapies 2001,April; 7:91-95
16. Kakuda T, Nozawa A, Unno T, et al. Inhibiting effects of theanine on caffeine stimulation evaluated by EEG in
    the rat. Biosci Biotechno Biochem 2000; 64:287-293.

L-Tyrosine
1. Rasmussen DD, Ishizuka B, Quigley ME, Yen SS (1983). "Effects of tyrosine and tryptophan ingestion on
    plasma catecholamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid concentrations". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 57 (4):
    760–3. doi:10.1210/jcem-57-4-760. PMID 6885965
2. Hao S, Avraham Y, Bonne O, Berry EM (2001). "Separation-induced body weight loss, impairment in alternation
    behavior, and autonomic tone: effects of tyrosine".Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 68 (2): 273–81.
    doi:10.1016/S0091-3057(00)00448-2. PMID 11267632
3. Magill RA, Waters WF, Bray GA, Volaufova J, Smith SR, Lieberman HR, McNevin N, Ryan DH (2003). "Effects
    of tyrosine, phentermine, caffeine D-amphetamine, and placebo on cognitive and motor performance deficits
    during sleep deprivation".Nutritional Neuroscience 6 (4): 237–46. doi:10.1080/1028415031000120552.PMID
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4. Neri DF, Wiegmann D, Stanny RR, Shappell SA, McCardie A, McKay DL (1995). "The effects of tyrosine on
    cognitive performance during extended wakefulness". Aviation, space, and environmental medicine 66 (4):
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5. Reinstein DK, Lehnert H, Wurtman RJ (1985). "Dietary tyrosine suppresses the rise in plasma corticosterone
    following acute stress in rats". Life Sci. 37 (23): 2157–63.doi:10.1016/0024-3205(85)90566-1. PMID 4068899
6. Deijen JB, Orlebeke JF (1994). "Effect of tyrosine on cognitive function and blood pressure under stress". Brain
    Res. Bull. 33 (3): 319–23. doi:10.1016/0361-9230(94)90200-3. PMID 8293316
7. Deijen JB, Wientjes CJ, Vullinghs HF, Cloin PA, Langefeld JJ (1999). "Tyrosine improves cognitive performance
    and reduces blood pressure in cadets after one week of a combat training course". Brain Res. Bull. 48 (2):
    203–9. doi:10.1016/S0361-9230(98)00163-4. PMID 10230711
8. Mahoney CR, Castellani J, Kramer FM, Young A, Lieberman HR (2007). "Tyrosine supplementation mitigates
    working memory decrements during cold exposure".Physiology and Behavior IN PRESS (4):
    575–82.doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2007.05.003. PMID 17585971
9. Owasoyo JO, Neri DE Lamberth JG. Tyrosine and its potential use as a countermeasure to performance
    decrement in military sustained operations. Aviat Space Environ Med 1992;63:364-369.
10. Thomas JR, Lockwood PA, Singh A, et al. Tyrosine improves working memory in a multitasking environment.
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1999 Nov;64(3):495-500.
11. Shukitt-Hale B, Stillman MJ, Lieberman HR. Tyrosine administration prevents hypoxia-induced decrements in
    learning and memory. Physiol Behav 1996 Apr-May;59(4-5):867-71.

Niacin (Vitamin B3)
1. Brody T. Nutritional Biochemistry. 2nd ed. San Diego: Academic Press; 1999.
2. Cervantes-Laurean D, McElvaney NG, Moss J. Niacin. In: Shils M, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Modern
    Nutrition in Health and Disease. 9th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1999:401-411.
3. McGovern ME (2005). "Taking aim at HDL-C. Raising levels to reduce cardiovascular risk". Postgrad Med 117
    (4): 29–30, 33–5, 39 passim.
4. Canner PL, Berge KG, Wenger NK, et al. (1986). "Fifteen year mortality in Coronary Drug Project patients:
    long-term benefit with niacin". J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 8 (6): 1245–55.

Panax Ginseng
1. Huang L, Zhao H, Huang B, Zheng C, Peng W, Qin L.,"Acanthopanax senticosus: review of botany, chemistry
    and pharmacology." Pharmazie. 2011 Feb;66(2):83-97
2. Mahady GB, Gyllenhall C, Fong HH, Farnsworth NR. Ginsengs: a review of safety and efficacy. Nutr Clin Care.
    2000;3:90–101.
3. Kennedy DO, Scholey AB, Wesnes KA. Modulation of cognition and mood following administration of single
    doses of Ginkgo biloba, ginseng, and a ginkgo/ginseng combination to healthy young adults. Physiol Behav.
    2002;75:739–51.
4. Wesnes KA, Ward T, McGinty A, Petrini O. The memory enhancing effects of a Ginkgo biloba/Panax ginseng
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5. "Herbal remedies ‘boost brain power’". bbc.co.uk. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/713087.stm. Retrieved
    2011-10-05.
6. D'Angelo L, Grimaldi R, Caravaggi M, Marcoli M, Perucca E, Lecchini S, et al. A double-blind, placebo-
    controlled clinical study on the effect of a standardized ginseng extract on psychomotor performance in healthy
    volunteers. J Ethnopharmacol. 1986;16:15–22.
7. Ellis JM, Reddy P. Effects of Panax ginseng on quality of life. Ann Pharmacother. 2002;36:375–9.
8. Sorensen H, Sonne J. A double-masked study of the effects of ginseng on cognitive functions. Curr Ther Res
    Clin Exp. 1996;57:959–68.

Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5)
1. Rokitzki L, Sagredos A, Reuss F, et al. Pantothenic acid levels in blood of athletes at rest and after aerobic
    exercise. Z Ernahrungswiss 1993;32(4):282-288 1993.
2. Gropper, S. S, Smith, J. L., Groff, J. L. (2009). Advanced nutrition and human metabolism. Belmont, CA:
    Wadsworth, Cengage learning.
3. Sweetman, L. (2005). Pantothenic Acid. Encyclopedia of Dietary Supplements. 1: 517-525.
4. Voet, D., Voet, J.G., Pratt, C.W. (2006). Fundamentals of Biochemistry: Life at the Molecular Level, 2nd ed.
    Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
5. Woolf, NJ; Butcher, LL (1989). "Cholinergic systems in the rat brain: IV. Descending projections of the
    pontomesencephalic tegmentum". Brain research bulletin 23 (6): 519–40. doi:10.1016/0361-9230(89)90197-4.
    PMID 2611694
6. Haj-Dahmane, S; Andrade, R (1996). "Muscarinic activation of a voltage-dependent cation nonselective current
    in rat association cortex". Journal of Neuroscience 16 (12): 3848–61. PMID 8656279
7. Otten, J. J., Hellwig, J. P., Meyers, L. D. (2008). Dietary reference intakes: The essential guide to nutrient
    requirements. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Rhodiola Rosea
1. Saratikov AS, Krasnov EA. Rhodiola rosea is a valuable medicinal plant (Golden Root). Tomsk, Russia: Tomsk
    State University Press; 1987.
2. Brown RP, Gerbarg PL, Ramazanov Z. Rhodiola rosea: a phytomedicinal overview. Herbalgram.
    2002;56:40-52.
3. Kurkin VA, Zapesochnaya GG. Chemical composition and pharmacological properties of Rhodiola
    rosea.Chemical and Pharmaceutical Journal (Moscow) 1986;20(10):1231-44.
4. Petkov VD, Stancheva SL, Tocuschieva L, Petkov VV. Changes in brain biogenic monoamines induced by the
    nootropic drugs adafenoxate and meclofenoxate and by citicholine (experiments on rats). Gen Pharmacol
    1990;21(1):71-5.
5. Lazarova MB, Petkov VD, Markovska VL, Petkov VV, Mosharrof A. Effects of meclofenoxate and extr.Rhodiolae
    rosea L. on electroconvulsive shock-impaired learning and memory in rats. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol
    1986;8(9):547-52.
6. Petkov VD, Yonkov D, Mosharoff A, Kambourova T, Alova L, Petkov VV, et al. Effects of alcohol aqueous extract
    from Rhodiola rosea L. roots on learning and memory. Acta Physiol Pharmacol Bulg1986;12(1):3-16.
7. Saratikov A, Marina TF, Fisanova LL. Effect of golden root extract on processes of serotonin synthesis in CNS.
    Journal of Biological Sciences 1978;6:142.
8. Marina TF, Alekseeva LP. Effect of Rhodiola rosea extract on electroencephalograms in rabbit. In. Saratikov AS,
    editor. Stimulants of the Central Nervous System. Tomsk, Russia: Tomsk State University Press; 1968. p. 22-6.
9. Adamchuk LV, Salnik BU. Effect of Rhodiola rosea extract and piridrol on metabolism of rats under high
    muscular load. Proceedings Institute of Cytology of Russian Academy of Science. 1971;89-92.
10. Darbinyan V, Kteyan A, Panossian A, et al. Rhodiola rosea in stress induced fatigue—a double blind
    cross-over study of a standardized extract SHR-5 with a repeated low-dose regimen on the mental
    performance of healthy physicians during night duty. Phytomedicine. 2000 Oct;7(5):365-71.
11. Spasov AA, Wikman GK, Mandrikov VB, Mironova IA, Neumoin VV. A double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot
    study of the stimulating and adaptogenic effect of Rhodiola rosea SHR-5 extract on the fatigue of students
    caused by stress during an examination period with a repeated low-dose regimen. Phytomedicine. 2000
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12. Shevtsov VA, Zholus BI, Shervarly VI, et al. A randomized trial of two different doses of a SHR-5 Rhodiola
    rosea extract versus placebo and control of capacity for mental work. Phytomedicine. 2003
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13. Kucinskaite A, Briedis V, Savickas A. Experimental analysis of therapeutic properties of Rhodiola rosea L. and
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14. Krasik ED, Morozova ES, Petrova KP, Ragulina GA, Shemetova LA, Shuvaev VP. Therapy of asthenic
    conditions: clinical perspectives of application of Rhodiola rosea extract (golden root). In: Proceedings of
    Modern Problems in Psychopharmacology. Kemerovo, Russia: Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of
    Sciences; 1970.
15. Krasik ED, Petrova KP, Rogulina GA, Shemetova LYa, Shuvayeva. New data on the therapy of asthenic
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    Psychopharmacology. 1970; 298-300

Thiamine (Vitamin B1)
1. Tanphaichitr V. Thiamin. In: Shils M, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease.
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3. Martin, PR, Singleton, CK, Hiller-Sturmhofel, S (2003). "The role of thiamine deficiency in alcoholic brain
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4. Brody T. Nutritional Biochemistry. 2nd ed. San Diego: Academic Press; 1999.
5. Knowles JR (1980). "Enzyme-catalyzed phosphoryl transfer reactions". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 49: 877–919.
6. Tφrnroth-Horsefield S, Neutze R (December 2008). "Opening and closing the metabolite gate". Proc. Natl.
    Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105 (50): 19565–6.
7. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to thiamine and carbohydrate and energy-
    yielding metabolism pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA Journal 2010; 8(7):1690.

Vitamin B6
1. McCormick DB. Vitamin B6. In: Bowman BA, Russell RM, eds. Present Knowledge in Nutrition. Vol. I.
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2. Leklem JE. Vitamin B6. In: Machlin L, ed. Handbook of Vitamins. New York: Marcel Decker Inc; 1991:341-378.
3. Dakshinamurti S, Dakshinamurti K. Vitamin B6. In: Zempleni J, Rucker RB, McCormick DB, Suttie JW, eds.
    Handbook of Vitamins. 4th ed. New York: CRC Press (Taylor & Fracis Group); 2007:315-359.
4. Leklem JE. Vitamin B6. In: Shils M, Olson JA, Shike M, Ross AC, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease.
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5. Mackey A, Davis S, Gregory J. Vitamin B6. In: Shils M, Shike M, Ross A, Caballero B, Cousins R, eds. Modern
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    Ribaya-Mercado JD, Russell RM, Sahyoun N, Morrow FD, Gershoff SN. Vitamin B-6 deficiency impairs
    interleukin 2 production and lymphocyte proliferation in elderly adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;53(5):1275-1280.
6. Bryan J, Calvaresi E, Hughes D. Short-term folate, vitamin B-12 or vitamin B-6 supplementation slightly affects
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7. Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin
    B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: National Academy Press;
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8. Deijen JB, van der Beek EJ, Orlebeke JF, van den Berg H. Vitamin B-6 supplementation in elderly men: effects
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Vitamin B12
1. Herbert V. Vitamin B12 in Present Knowledge in Nutrition. 17th ed. Washington, DC: International Life Sciences
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2. Herbert V, Das K. Vitamin B12 in Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 8th ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams &
    Wilkins, 1994.
3. Combs G. Vitamin B12 in The Vitamins. New York: Academic Press, Inc., 1992.
4. Zittoun J, Zittoun R. Modern clinical testing strategies in cobalamin and folate deficiency. Sem Hematol
    1999;36:35-46.
5. Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin
    B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: National Academy Press,
    1998.
6. "Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Vitamin B12". Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health.
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7. Hutto BR. Folate and cobalamin in psychiatric illness. Compr Psychiatry 1997;38:305-14.